According to statistics, traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) are the most common type of injuries and one of the main factors that leads to motion disability. Moreover, this condition is most frequently seen in able-bodied part of population aged 21-45 years, mostly men.
The brain is a vital organ, a control center of our body. It sends signals to other organs and systems, and monitors their proper function. Brain activity defines our personal features, behavior and character. Any changes, damages or pathologies may have unpredictable consequences for the whole organism. TBI may restrict the movement abilities, while mentally the person will stay unchanged. Or backwards, while remaining physically healthy, the personality or mental abilities may change.
There are no two identical brain injuries. Each case is strictly individual, which complicates its diagnosing and treatment choice. The recovery might also be quite uncertain, since the symptoms and consequences may manifest themselves only in the long run.
The traumatic brain injuries are classified into three groups: mild, moderate and severe.
The first type is the least dangerous for a human. In all medical cases, the patients have fully recovered, without any complications in any body systems. However, constant injuries (for example, in boxers) over time can lead to the development of dementia and some other pathologies.
The recovery from a moderate TBI requires 6-12 months on the average. This type hardly causes any mobility restrictions after the recovery.
Severe form of the traumatic brain injury is a serious event for the body. The mortality among people with this condition is high — 60%. In 90% cases, the patients lose mobility partially or completely. The severity of the brain damage defines further psychological and neurological disorders in almost all medical cases.
Any abnormal physical impact on the head may cause a traumatic brain injury. The top three cases leading to this condition are falls, firearms and car accidents.
A brain injury may cause various problems. Beside a thread to life, there are a lot of serious conditions that bring health problems, discomfort and deterioration of life quality.
Cognitive brain functions may be affected even by mild trauma. The patient experiences confusion and a decrease in mental abilities. In the case of moderate and severe damages, amnesia, visual impairment, hearing loss, rapid fatigue are possible.
Moderate and severe TDIs cause difficulty speaking and swallowing. Severe cases may end up in incomprehensible speech and even speech loss.
The functions of the musculoskeletal system may decrease too. The condition may cause limb convulsions or cervical muscle paralysis. In severe injuries, partial paralysis, loss of body sensitivity, paresis of limbs, impaired movement coordination may occur.
Pain syndrome can accompany even mild brain damage, but chronic pain is more often caused by severe and moderate injuries.
The psychological condition is significantly affected by traumatic brain injuries. Patients suffer from losing body functions, partial or total loss of ability to work. As a result, they experience apathy, irritability, depression.